The seed of 11 Camellia plants were selected as material and their grain traits, fatty acid composition and vitamin E content were studied in this paper. The results showed that the thousand seed weight, oil length of kernel, kernel percent of dry seed and oil length of dry seed on seed of Camellia species were different significantly. The oil length of dry seed in Camellia chekiangoleosa was highest, containing 38. 17%, and Camellia vietnamensis was the least, containing 20. 24%. The major fatty acid composition was same, which included oleic acid，linoleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. Among of them, oleic acid content of Camellia saluenensis was thehighest. Moreover, the main fatty acid had some relationship, such as between oleic acid and linoleic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid both had a significant negative correlation, but linoleic acid and palmitic acid had a significant positive correlation. The order of vitamin E content from high to low was Camellia yuhsienensis, Camellia reticulate, Camellia polyodonta, Camellia reticulate, Camellia saluenensis, Camellia meiocarpa, Camellia vietnamensis, Camellia chekiangoleosa, Camellia magniflora, Camellia semiserrata and Camellia brevistyla, and the mass fraction were 243.00 mg /kg, 202.23 mg /kg, 178.47 mg /kg, 145.80 mg /kg, 145.00 mg /kg, 142.20 mg /kg, 127.33 mg /kg, 105.03 mg /kg, 99.32 mg /kg, 87.03 mg /kg and 20.21 mg /kg respectively.