Michigan State University
The selectivity and efficiency of urea complex (UC) formation-based fractionation of free fatty acids (FFA) were examined. A rapid, simple, and inexpensive procedure recently developed for urea fractionation was applied to lipid mixtures containing various polyunsaturated and hydroxy FFA species. Urea treatment proved useful for isolating polyunsaturated FFA (PUFA) from FFA derived from fish, borage, and linseed oils by removal of saturated and monounsaturated FFA, but was not effective for isolating hydroxy FFA from the FFA derived from castor, Lesquerella, and Dimorphotheca oils. In situations where FFA within the crystalline or UC phase were rich in PUFA, the urea/FFA mole ratio of the UC was relatively higher, with lower recovery of FFA in this phase. The distribution of urea between the crystalline phase and the solvent was not significantly affected by the FFA composition of feed nor the overall ratio of FFA to urea. It was strongly dependent on the overall mass fraction of solvent. Phospholipids and mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols were poor templates for UC formation relative to FFA. Their inclusion in acylglycerol mixtures containing FFA reduced UC formation.
Hayes, Douglas G.; Van Alstine, James M.; Setterwall, Fredrik
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society